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AISI 321

AISI 321 stainless steel is known as stabilized stainless steel, and just like the majority of AISI’s other stainless steel, it contains Chromium-Nickel but with Titanium. With just the involvement of Titanium, consumers are down to buy more as it can get scarce since many are hoarding this material.


But not to worry, YAOYI offers the premium AISI 321 stainless steel that you need of all sorts of variants. So, you don’t have to worry about getting nothing. 


But first, let’s look into AISI 321’s capabilities, components, and every bit of important detail.


What is Stabilized Stainless Steel?

Understanding Steel Basics

AISI 321 Mechanical Properties

Electrical Properties

AISI 321 Chemical Composition

FAQs about AISI 321

Advantages and Disadvantages of AISI 321

What is Stabilized Stainless Steel?

As mentioned, AISI 321 stainless steel is also known as stabilized stainless steel. So, what is it? Stabilized stainless steel is a category of steel that contains specific stabilizer elements that other steels don’t have. These elements play a vital role in the stainless steel’s composition,


These elements are the following:

• Titanium

• Niobium


These elements form carbides that are more stable than regular chromium carbides. Stainless steels that contain these elements are called stabilized stainless steels.


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You can always find the cost-effective AISI 321 stainless steel materials and products from Yaoyi. Just remember to contact us and you will have a chance to get the free sample.


What are Carbides?

Carbides in steel are compounds of Carbon and electronegative elements but in fewer amounts, which are distinguished by their chemical bonding whether ionic or covalent. These are prepared from metal oxides at high temperatures, specifically 1500 °C or higher by combining carbon with metal.

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Understanding Steel Basics:

If you are new to the steel industry or you are just in need of stainless steel for a certain project that you are not sure of, then here are the fundamentals you should know.


Should you have more questions after reading this section, you can contact YAOYI Services to help you make that purchase decision.


What does AISI Stand For?

The abbreviation AISI stands for the American Iron and Steel Institute, and they have been in the steel industry since 1908. Together with the Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE), the two companies are the reasons why our numbering system for steel was successfully made.


What is AISI 321?

AISI 321 is a stabilized austenitic stainless steel that is similar to other grades including the 304, but it has its unique attributes such as the fact that A-321 contains Titanium, which is also more than its carbon content.


Titanium prevents or reduces carbide precipitation during the welding process and in 800 – 1500 °F service.


Although A-321 is not as popular as the AISI 304, it is still worth considering because it has many factors that the typical 304 does not have, including stabilizer elements.


What is AISI 321 For?

When it comes to corrosion and oxidation resistance, A-321 provides superb protection. It has an excellent creep strength as well which is essential for a stainless steel’s health in the long run. 


AISI 321 is primarily used for applications for intermittent service temperatures within the carbide percentage of 800°F to up to 1500°F.


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AISI 321 Mechanical Properties

AISI 321 is designed to work within the extreme temperature range of carbide precipitation development. This goes the same with AISI 304 except that it does not have Titanium. Titanium is what prevents chromium carbide precipitation resulting from welding or elevated temperatures.


Stabilized at annealing temperatures that range between 950°C to 1010°C. This resists scaling and harmful vibrating fatigue.


Steel Grade

The steel grade is a measurement or way to categorize different types of stainless steel based on their chemical composition and mechanical properties. Meaning, each steel type is different from one another because each type contains unique properties with different percentage ranges per element.


When it comes to the A-321, it is a stabilized steel since it has Titanium.


Tensile Strength

Tensile strength is the amount of stress a type of steel can handle before it starts to break down or get damaged. It is the resistance to the tension that is caused by mechanical loads to the material.


The tensile strength of AISI 321 Stainless steel is 89,000 psi (per square inch), With this amount of PSI, it is capable of many projects since it can withstand extreme tension stress.


Yield Strength 

Yield strength is still relevant to stress being applied to the material but yield strength measures how much stress stainless steel can handle before deformation is produced.


Its yield strength is 34,800 psi which is a decent amount and is certainly not the weakest yield strength for stainless steel.

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Elongation refers to how much a stainless steel can stretch from its original length. This is rated through percentage and the AISI 321’s elongation percentage is 45% (in 50mm).


Modulus of Elasticity

The modulus of elasticity is measured through the stiffness of the steel. In this case, the A-321 has a modulus elasticity of 28,000 to 29,000 ksi (kilopounds per square inch).


Charpy Impact

Charpy impact is the determination of whether or not a steel is brittle or ductile. This is also a great indicator of how durable a certain type of stainless steel is. The charpy impact for the A-321 stainless steel is 122ft-lb.


Izod Impact

Izod impact is the kinetic energy needed to create a fracture and continue it until the steel is broken. These are notched to prevent deformation upon the impact.


The AISI 321 stainless steel’s Izod impact is 99.6 ft-lb.


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Electrical Properties

Electrical properties is something to consider as well if you are looking for stainless steel that involves electricity. This is for your safety and the people around you. Here are the electrical properties of AISI 321.


Electrical Resistivity

Electrical resistivity refers to how strongly a material resists electricity and it is measured through ohm metre. One ohm is equal to the resistance of a conductor through which a current of one ampere flows.


The A-321 Stainless Steel has an electrical resistivity rate of 7.2e-005 ohm-cm.


Magnetic Permeability

Magnetic Permeability refers to the ratio of the magnetic induction to intensity of the magnet. It is considered a scalar quantity and it is denoted by the symbol “ μ “. The purpose of magnetic permeability helps you measure a certain material’s resistance to the magnetic field.


In this case, the AISI 321 stainless steel’s magnetic permeability is 1.008 μ.


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AISI 321 Chemical Composition

As you know by now, the chemical composition of AISI 321 contains a stabilizer element which is Titanium but here are the other elements it contains.


• Carbon = 0.08%

• Silicon  = 1%

• Manganese = -2%

• Nickel = 9-12%

• Chromium = 17-19%

• Phosphorus = 0.045%

• Sulphur = 0.03%


For Titanium, it contains 5x the amount of Carbon. This is one of the major differences that makes AISI 321 stainless steel unique from other grades both high and low.


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How do you Use AISI 321?

Because of its Titanium stabilizer element, it is capable of many things and it is great at withstanding extreme temperatures as well which is why it is regularly applied on the following,


Common Uses for AISI 321:


• Heat Exchangers

• Expansion Joints

• Furnace Parts

• Chemical Containers

• Exhausts


And many more including industrial uses in factories and mechanical manufacturers.


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Frequently asked questions about AISI 321:

Frequently asked questions about AISI 321:

Here are questions commonly asked by consumers who are intrigued by AISI 321’s capabilities. These are not the most important details but it is worth mentioning:


Is AISI 321 Magnetic?

AISI 321 has exceptional intergranular corrosion resistance like the AISI 304 but with oxidation resistance exposure to temperatures ranging from 1500˚F, and it has a higher creep and stress ruptures than of the AISI 304 and AISI 304L. 


When it comes to low temperatures in its annealed condition, it is capable of withstanding that  and it is also non-magnetic..


Does AISI 321 Rust?

Like other stainless steel, it is able to resist intergranular corrosion following exposure to the temperatures that develop chromium carbide precipitation that range from 800°F-1500° F.

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Is AISI 321 Durable?

Based on its mechanical properties and chemical composition, there is without a doubt that A-321 stainless steel is durable and reliable for big projects. It is also worth noting that AISI 321’s are both corrosion and oxidation resistant.


Is AISI 321 Good for Outdoors?

Yes, AISI 321 is not afraid of a little or cold as it can adapt to normal temperatures of our climates. It is also easy to maintain which is why you do not have to worry about getting your AISI 321’s damaged outdoors.


Can AISI 321 Survive Extreme Temperatures?

Absolutely, and it does a great job of it. AISI 321’s are engineered to be capable of adapting to different temperatures and extreme conditions. For projects that involve too much heat, remember that AISI 321’s are commonly used in heat exchangers. So, don’t worry.


Should you have more concerns, YAOYI’s team of professionals will be willing to accommodate your concerns right away. 


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What is the difference between 304 and 321 stainless steel?

The main difference between the AISI 304 stainless steel and the A-321 stainless steel is that the 304 contains lower carbon chromium nickel. When it comes to resistance to heat, the 321 is better at handling it.

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What is the difference between 316 and 321 stainless steel?

Similar to the difference above, the main difference to both is the level of carbon content which affects the weldability and resistance to corrosion. The AISI 316 does not contain any stabilizer element as well unlike the 321 which has Titanium.

Advantages and Disadvantages of AISI 321

In this part of the article, you will learn the advantages of what AISI 321 brings to its users. Of course, it has its own disadvantages as well but it certainly does not outweigh the benefits since it has only a few drawbacks.

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Here are the main advantages of AISI 321 Stainless steel.



Based on its chemical composition, the A-321 stainless steel is outstanding when it comes to corrosion resistance, this is because its components are responsible for its protection. Corrosion resistance is also one of the reasons why a lot of consumers buy AISI 321 stainless steel.



It is important to note as well that A-321 is also oxidation-resistant. Meaning, you do not have to worry about it degrading as years go by since it is capable of oxidation resistance because of its protective elements.

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Has Titanium

With Titanium alone, A-321 Stainless Steel is part of the stabilized steel grade category which makes it a decent choice for consumers that are looking for steel that prevents chromium carbide precipitation.


Can withstand High-Temperatures

AISI 321 Stainless steel is the preferred option for users that plan on using it at temperatures above 500° C which make it has its own merits. This gives you the upperhand of not getting constantly worried as well since it is reliable in such hot temperatures.



AISI 321 Stainless steel is incredibly versatile and can be used for many projects since it is capable of withstanding high temperatures and chromium carbide precipitation. It definitely is a good choice if you’re looking for projects that require adaptable stainless steel.



Here’s the main disadvantage of using AISI 321 stainless steel.


Transferring Difficulties

It is known that Titanium does not transfer easily across high-temperature arcs, and because of this it is not recommended as a welding consumable. In most cases, type is the best option for this because Niobium performs the same function as Titanium but with no transfer issues. 




If you are looking for stainless steel that is capable of surviving chromium carbide precipitation, then go for AISI 321 Stainless steel. Having Titanium in your still is great for preventing harmful chromium carbide precipitation, and A-321 is very versatile in different temperatures as well.


Overall its A-321s are reliable, durable, and versatile. It does not back away from big projects both indoors and outdoors.


Should you require more information, and other stainless steel products, YAOYI, One of the best suppliers, is just one call away and ready to provide you with the best services for your convenience.


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