Why Does The Nickel Affect The Price of Stainless Steel?
Why Does The Price of Nickel Affect The Price of Stainless Steel? For a long time, people have been confused. What is the relationship between nickel ore and stainless steel?
Nickel is an element that is one million strong and stabilizes austenite and expands the austenite phase region. To obtain a single austenite structure, the minimum nickel content required when the stainless steel contains 0.1% carbon and 18% chromium is about 8%, this is the basic score of the most famous 18-8 chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel. In austenitic stainless steel, as the nickel content increases, the residual ferrite can be eliminated, and the formation of the σ phase is significantly reduced.
At the same time, the martensite-to-hydrocarbon temperature decreases, even without the λ→M phase transition, but the increase of nickel content will reduce the solubility of carbon in austenitic stainless steel, thereby increasing the tendency of carbide precipitation.
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As mentioned above, austenite is non-magnetic or weakly magnetic, while martensite or ferrite is magnetic. Due to composition segregation or improper heat treatment during smelting, a small amount of martensite or iron in the austenitic 304 stainless steel wire will be caused. Body tissue. In this way, 304 ss wire will have weak magnetic properties.
In addition, after the 304 ss wire rod is cold-worked, the structure will also be transformed into martensite. The greater the degree of cold-worked deformation, the greater the transformation of martensite and the greater the magnetic properties of the steel. It seems that a batch of steel strips produces Φ76 tubes without significant magnetic induction; produces Φ9.5 tubes, which have a more pronounced magnetic induction due to larger bending deformation; and produces square rectangular tubes due to greater deformation than round tubes, especially The corners are somewhat bent, the deformation is more severe and the magnetism is more pronounced.
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The influence of nickel on the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels, especially chromium-nickel negative-numbered stainless steels, is mainly determined by the influence of nickel on the stability of austenite. As the nickel content increases, the strength of the steel decreases, and the sheet plasticity increases. The chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel with a stable austenitic structure has excellent toughness (including extremely low-temperature toughness), so it can be used as low-temperature steel. This is well known. Chromium-manganese austenitic ss with a stable austenitic structure, the addition of nickel can further improve its toughness. Nickel can also significantly reduce the cold work hardening tendency of austenitic stainless steel, which is mainly due to the increase in the stability of austenite. Even the martensite transformation during the cold working process is eliminated, and the cold work hardening effect on the austenite itself is not obvious, and the influence of the cold work hardening tendency of stainless steel.
Nickel reduces the cold work hardening rate of austenitic stainless steel and reduces the room temperature and low temperature of the steel. Strength and the effect of improving plasticity determine that the increase of nickel content is conducive to the cold forming performance of austenite stainless, and the increase of nickel content can also reduce or even eliminate 18-8 and 17-14-2 chromium-nickel 9 clamps) Austenitic The δ ferrite in the stainless steel can improve its hot workability. However, the reduction of δ ferrite is unfavorable to the weldability of these steels and will increase the tendency of welding hot cracks. In addition, nickel can also significantly increase chromium. The hot workability of manganese-nitrogen (chromium-manganese-nickel-nitrogen) austenitic stainless steel can significantly increase the yield of steel.
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In austenitic stainless steel, the addition of nickel and the increase in nickel content leads to an increase in the thermodynamic stability of the steel. Therefore, austenitic stainless steel has better rust resistance and resistance to oxidizing media. With the increase of the content, the performance of resistance to reducing media is further improved. It is worth pointing out that nickel is the only important element to improve the resistance of austenite stainless to many media through crystal stress corrosion.
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In the influence of nickel on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel in various acid media, it should be pointed out that under some conditions in high temperature and high-pressure water, the increase in nickel content leads to an increase in the intergranular stress corrosion sensitivity of steel and alloys, but This adverse effect will be reduced or suppressed due to the increase of the chromium content in steel and alloys. With the increase of nickel content in magnetic card austenitic stainless steel, the critical carbon content for intergranular corrosion is reduced, that is, the intergranular corrosion of steel is sensitive.
As for the resistance to pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion of austenitic stainless steel, the effect of nickel is not significant. In addition, nickel also improves the high-temperature oxidation resistance of austenitic stainless steel, which is mainly related to nickel improving the chromium oxide film The composition, structure, and performance of the steel are reduced, and the higher the nickel content, the more harmful it is. This is mainly due to the one million low melting point nickel sulfide at the grain boundary in the steel.
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